Global trends focus on a balanced intake of foods and beverages to maintain health. Drinking water (MIU; hardness = 88) produced from deep sea water (DSW) collected offshore of Muroto, Japan, is considered healthy. We previously reported that the DSW-based drinking water (RDSW; hardness = 1000) improved human gut health. The aim of this randomized double-blind controlled trial was to assess the effects of MIU on human health. Volunteers were assigned to MIU (n = 41) or mineral water (control) groups (n = 41). Participants consumed 1 L of either water type daily for 12 weeks. A self-administered questionnaire was administered, and stool and urine samples were collected throughout the intervention. We measured the fecal biomarkers of nine short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), as well as urinary isoflavones. In the MIU group, concentrations of three major SCFAs and sIgA increased postintervention. MIU intake significantly affected one SCFA (butyric acid). The metabolic efficiency of daidzein-to-equol conversion was significantly higher in the MIU group than in the control group throughout the intervention. MIU intake reflected the intestinal environment through increased production of three major SCFAs and sIgA, and accelerated daidzein-to-equol metabolic conversion, suggesting the beneficial health effects of MIU. View Full-Text
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