Study shows improvements in depression and anxiety scores among individuals supplementing with probiotics alongside standard antidepressant medication
Data from a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial published today in JAMA Psychiatry
A new study published today (14 June) in JAMA Psychiatry has found evidence that supplementing the diet with a probiotic blend containing 14 strains of bacteria can help individuals who are being treated for major depressive disorder with antidepressants. The research, led by the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s College London and in partnership with ADM Protexin, part of ADM, demonstrated the potential of probiotic supplementation to support improvements in multiple depression and anxiety scores over an eight-week period.
The pilot study is one of the first trials in a Western population to show both good tolerability of probiotics and positive effects on mental health in adults with depression currently taking antidepressants. According to the researchers leading the study, the results provide a strong basis to further investigate the benefits of this probiotic food supplement for supporting mood and mental health in a larger trial.
There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota (the vast and dynamic community of microorganisms inhabiting the gut) has a role to play in the regulation of mood. The study was a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, designed as an initial exploration of whether improving gut health through the use of probiotics – supplements containing beneficial bacteria – could act as a new pathway for supporting mood and mental health.
In this pilot trial, 49 adults with diagnosed major depressive disorder and with an incomplete response to prescription antidepressants were provided with a widely available, proprietary 14 strain blend probiotic supplement or an identical placebo (24 receiving the probiotic). Over the course of eight weeks, both groups demonstrated improvement in their symptoms, but greater improvements were seen in the probiotic group from week four onwards. Meaningful reported improvements were seen, measured against gold standard rating scales for depression and anxiety.
Professor James Stone, the study’s senior investigator who began the work at King’s IoPPN and is now at Brighton and Sussex Medical School said, “Non- or partial response to antidepressants is a huge problem and this study is an important first step in exploring the therapeutic potential of probiotics as a treatment for depression. We found that probiotics were an acceptable and tolerable supplement in people already taking antidepressant medications. This now paves the way for studies looking at whether we see these beneficial effects of probiotics on depression and anxiety in larger populations of patients.”
Dr. Viktoriya Nikolova, the study’s first author from King’s IoPPN said, “The gut-brain axis is a truly fascinating and rapidly evolving area of microbiome research. The findings of this pilot study are an important step forward in our understanding of the role of probiotics in mood and mental health.”
Dr Richard Day, VP of Medical Affairs at ADM said, “According to the World Health Organisation, an estimated 5% of adults suffer from depression, with a significant number failing to respond completely to standard treatment options. This trial is one of the few clinical studies to assess the benefits of supplementing the diet with probiotics alongside standard of care antidepressant medication. These exciting results add to our understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and mental health.”
This study was possible thanks to an MRC Industrial CASE PhD Studentship with ADM Protexin as the industry partner, and charitable donations from Freya Green. It also received funding from the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London.
King’s College London
Nikolova VL, Cleare AJ, Young AH, Stone JM. Acceptability, tolerability, and estimates of
putative treatment effects of probiotics as adjunctive treatment in patients with depression: a
randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online June 14, 2023.
About King’s College London and the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience
King’s College London is one of the top 35 universities in the world and one of the top 10 in Europe (QS World University Rankings, 2021/22) and among the oldest in England. King’s has more than 33,000 students (including more than 12,800 postgraduates) from over 150 countries worldwide, and 8,500 staff. King’s has an outstanding reputation for world-class teaching and cutting-edge research.
The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s is a leading centre for mental health and neuroscience research in Europe. It produces more highly cited outputs (top 1% citations) on psychiatry and mental health than any other centre (SciVal 2021), and on this metric has risen from 16th (2014) to 4th (2021) in the world for highly cited neuroscience outputs. In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework (REF), 90% of research at the IoPPN was deemed ‘world leading’ or ‘internationally excellent’ (3* and 4*). World-leading research from the IoPPN has made, and continues to make, an impact on how we understand, prevent and treat mental illness, neurological conditions, and other conditions that affect the brain.
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn | Follow @KingsIoPPN on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and LinkedIn
METHOD OF RESEARCH
Randomized controlled/clinical trial
SUBJECT OF RESEARCH
Acceptability, tolerability, and estimates of putative treatment effects of probiotics as adjunctive treatment in patients with depression: a randomized clinical trial
ARTICLE PUBLICATION DATE
Dr Nikolova has received grants from the Medical Research Council and ADMH Protexin during the conduct of the study as well as personal fees from Janssen outside the submitted work. Dr Cleare has received grants from the Medical Research Council and ADMH Protexin during the conduct of the study as well as personal fees from Janssen, Compass Pathways, and Medscape outside the submitted work. Dr Young has received grants from the Medical Research Council and ADMH Protexin during the conduct of the study; grants from Janssen, Lundbeck, and Compass Pathways; and personal fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Sunovion, Allergan, Compass Pathways, Sage, Novartis, Neurocentrx, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Bionomics, Livanova, Lundbeck, Servier, and Janssen outside the submitted work; and is Editor of the Journal of Psychopharmacology and Deputy Editor of BJPsych Open. Dr Stone has received grants from the Medical Research Council and ADMH Protexin during the conduct of the study; research support from Takeda; charitable funding from Freya Green; and personal fees from Janssen outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
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