Release Date 26 MAR 2015
Draft Report Compiled by
In this Issue:
1. Dark Chocolate Shows Health Benefits in Sedentary Older Adults
2. Losing weight substantially reduces atrial fibrillation
3. Diet soda linked to increases in belly fat in older adults
4. Decline in heart health can start in childhood
5. WSU researchers show how fatty acids can fight prostate cancer
6. Vitamin D prevents diabetes and clogged arteries in mice
7. Stinging nettle chemical improves cancer drug
8. High-dose zinc acetate lozenges may help shorten symptoms associated with the common cold
9. Study: Zinc deficiency linked to immune system response, particularly in older adults
10. New low-calorie rice could help cut rising obesity rates
11. Milk could be good for your brain
12. Pregnant women not getting enough omega-3, critical for infant development
13. HBV exposure matures infants’ immune systems
14. Chikungunya virus may be coming to a city near you — learn the facts
15. Roseroot herb shows promise as potential depression treatment option, Penn team finds
Dark Chocolate Shows Health Benefits in Sedentary Older Adults
A new study suggests eating dark chocolate could help improve energy levels, raise exercise stamina and improve other measures of heart health in sedentary older adults.
The researchers analyzed blood samples, exercise endurance tests and skeletal muscle biopsies of 17 volunteers before and after a three-month period in which participants were randomly assigned to eat either a small amount of dark chocolate or a placebo daily. Neither the researchers nor the participants knew which participants received the placebo until after the study. Subjects given dark chocolate showed improvements in high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or “good” cholesterol) and increased proteins associated with metabolism and energy production. Exercise testing indicated these volunteers also had a higher capacity for exercise and more efficient energy production in their muscle cells.
The study is the first to evaluate the effects of dark chocolate at a biochemical and mechanistic level in sedentary older adults, said lead study author Pam Taub, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego Health System and the study’s lead author. She said the results suggest dark chocolate could be an inexpensive and beneficial treatment for older people who are unable to exercise due to disabilities or mobility limitations. Future research could help elucidate other physiological effects of dark chocolate and epicatechin, the component thought to be responsible for its health effects. The study was conducted with funding from the Hershey Company.
Taub will present the study, “Effects of Dark Chocolate (DC) on Exercise Capacity in Sedentary Older Adults (A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial),” on Sunday, March 15 at 9:30 a.m. PT/12:30 p.m. ET/4:30 p.m. UTC in Poster Hall B1.
Public Release: 16-Mar-2015
Losing weight substantially reduces atrial fibrillation
Effect greatest in those who lose more weight, keep it off longer and have less weight fluctuation
American College of Cardiology
SAN DIEGO (March 16, 2015) — Obese patients with atrial fibrillation who lost at least 10 percent of their body weight were six times more likely to achieve long-term freedom from this common heart rhythm disorder compared to those who did not lose weight, according to a study presented at the American College of Cardiology’s 64th Annual Scientific Session.
The study is the first to track the long-term effects of weight loss and the degree of weight fluctuation on atrial fibrillation burden. Patients who lost more weight and maintained a more stable weight over four years showed marked reductions in atrial fibrillation burden and severity, the study’s primary endpoints.
“Previous studies have shown that weight management can reduce atrial fibrillation symptoms in the short term and improve outcomes of ablation [a surgical treatment for atrial fibrillation],” said Rajeev Pathak, M.D., a cardiologist and electrophysiology fellow at the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia and the study’s lead author. “We sought to shed light on the long-term outcomes of sustained weight loss, the effects of the amount of weight lost and the impact of changes in weight over time.”
An estimated 5.6 million U.S. adults have atrial fibrillation, which can cause episodes of weakness, shortness of breath and palpitations and increases the risk of more serious problems such as stroke. Obesity, seen in more than one-third of U.S. adults, is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.
“We found that sustained weight loss is achievable in obese patients and that it can significantly reduce the burden of atrial fibrillation,” Pathak said. “Weight loss also led to favorable changes in cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes, along with improvements in the structure and function of the heart.”
Researchers enrolled 355 participants in a dedicated weight loss clinic and tracked their health annually for an average of four years. All participants were obese and had atrial fibrillation at the start of the study. To encourage weight loss, the clinic used a motivational, goal-directed approach that included three in-person visits per month, detailed dietary guidance, low-intensity exercise, support counseling and maintenance of a daily diet and physical activity diary.
Participants returned to the clinic annually for a health exam and atrial fibrillation monitoring. To assess the frequency, duration and severity of symptoms, patients completed questionnaires and wore a Holter monitor, a machine that tracks the heart’s rhythms, for seven days. An echocardiogram, a sonogram of the heart, was also conducted to assess measures of heart health including the volume of the left atrium and the thickness of the left ventricular wall.
After an average of four years, 45 percent of patients who lost 10 percent or more of their body weight and 22 percent of patients who lost 3 to 9 percent of their weight achieved freedom from atrial fibrillation symptoms without the use of any atrial fibrillation surgery or medication. Only 13 percent of patients who lost less than 3 percent of their body weight were free of symptoms without these treatments. Even with the use of surgery or medication, those who lost more weight were substantially more likely to achieve freedom from atrial fibrillation symptoms.
Sustained weight management and a linear weight loss trajectory were also associated with greater freedom from atrial fibrillation. Patients who lost and then regained weight, causing a fluctuation of more than 5 percent between annual visits, were twice as likely to have recurrent rhythm problems than those who did not experience such fluctuations.
Weight loss was also associated with significant beneficial structural changes in the heart and significantly improved other markers of heart health including blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels. In an analysis that took all of these factors into account, patients who lost at least 10 percent of their weight were six times more likely to achieve freedom from atrial fibrillation than patients who lost less than 3 percent of their weight or gained weight.
Patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, a previous ablation or a severe medical illness were excluded from participating in the study. While the researchers used standardized procedures and follow up to reduce bias in the patient selection and evaluation process, all patients voluntarily opted to participate in the weight loss program and this may contribute to some level of bias, Pathak said. Future studies that involve a more diverse patient population could help to further refine understanding of the relationships between obesity and atrial fibrillation.
This study was simultaneously published online in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology at the time of presentation.
The ACC’s Annual Scientific Session brings together cardiologists and cardiovascular specialists from around the world each year to share the newest discoveries in treatment and prevention. Follow @ACCMediaCenter and #ACC15 for the latest news from the meeting.
The American College of Cardiology is a 49,000-member medical society that is the professional home for the entire cardiovascular care team. The mission of the College is to transform cardiovascular care and to improve heart health. The ACC leads in the formation of health policy, standards and guidelines. The College operates national registries to measure and improve care, provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research and bestows credentials upon cardiovascular specialists who meet stringent qualifications. For more information, visit acc.org.
Public Release: 17-Mar-2015
Diet soda linked to increases in belly fat in older adults
A new study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society shows that increasing diet soda intake is directly linked to greater abdominal obesity in adults 65 years of age and older. Findings raise concerns about the safety of chronic diet soda consumption, which may increase belly fat and contribute to greater risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Metabolic syndrome–a combination of risk factors that may lead to high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke–is one of the results of the obesity epidemic. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.9 billion adults were overweight (body mass index [BMI] of 25 or more) in 2014. Of this group, 600 million people fell into the obese range (BMI of 30 or more)–a figure that has more than doubled since 1980.
In an effort to combat obesity, many adults try to reduce sugar intake by turning to nonnutritive or artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharin, or sucralose. Previous research shows that in the past 30 years, artificial sweeteners and diet soda intake have increased, yet the prevalence of obesity has also seen a dramatic increase in the same time period. Many of the studies exploring diet soda consumption and cardiometabolic diseases have focused on middle-aged and younger adults.
“Our study seeks to fill the age gap by exploring the adverse health effects of diet soda intake in individuals 65 years of age and older,” explains lead author Sharon Fowler, MPH, from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. “The burden of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, along with healthcare costs, is great in the ever-increasing senior population.”
The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA) enrolled 749 Mexican- and European-Americans who were aged 65 and older at the start of the study (1992-96). Diet soda intake, waist circumference, height, and weight were measured at study onset, and at three follow-ups in 2000-01, 2001-03, and 2003-04, for a total of 9.4 follow-up years. At the first follow-up there were 474 (79.1%) surviving participants; there were 413 (73.4%) at the second follow-up and 375 (71.0%) at the third follow-up.
Findings indicate that the increase in waist circumference among diet soda drinkers, per follow-up interval, was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 cm versus 0.77 cm, respectively. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, interval waist circumference increases were 0.77 cm for non-users, 1.76 cm for occasional users, and 3.04 cm for daily users. This translates to waist circumference increases of 0.80 inches for non-users, 1.83 inches for occasional users, and 3.16 inches for daily users over the total 9.4-year SALSA follow-up period.
“The SALSA study shows that increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, which may increase cardiometabolic risk in older adults,” Fowler concludes. The authors recommend that older individuals who drink diet soda daily, particularly those at high cardiometabolic risk, should try to curb their consumption of artificially sweetened drinks.
This study is published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Media wishing to receive a PDF of this article may contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full citation: “Diet Soda Intake Is Associated with Long-Term Increases in Waist Circumference in a Biethnic Cohort of Older Adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging.” Sharon P.G. Fowler, Ken Williams and Helen P. Hazuda.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society; Published Online: March 17, 2015 (DOI: 10.1111/jgs.13376).
URL Upon Publication: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jgs.13376
Author Contact: To arrange an interview with Sharon Fowler, please contact Will Sansom with the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio: +1 210-567-2579 or SANSOM@uthscsa.edu.
About the Journal
The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society is a comprehensive and reliable source of monthly research and information about common diseases and disorders of older adults. For more information, please visit http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jgs..
About the American Geriatrics Society
Founded in 1942, the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) is a nationwide, not-for-profit society of geriatrics healthcare professionals dedicated to improving the health, independence, and quality of life of older people. Its more than 6,200 members include geriatricians, geriatric nurses, social workers, family practitioners, physician assistants, consulting pharmacists, and internists. The Society provides leadership to healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the public by implementing and advocating for programs in patient care, research, professional and public education, and public policy. For more information, visit americangeriatrics.org.
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Public Release: 17-Mar-2015
Decline in heart health can start in childhood
American Heart Association
DALLAS, March 17, 2015 — Your heart health, which is optimal for most of us at birth, can decline substantially with unhealthy childhood behaviors, according to research in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, an American Heart Association journal.
“Our findings indicate that, in general, children start with pretty good blood pressure,” said Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, M.D., Sc.M., senior author of the study and professor and chair of preventive medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. “But if they have a horrible diet, it will drive a worsening body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol levels.
“The better we can equip our children to make healthy choices, the more cardiovascular health will be preserved into adulthood. And those who preserve their heart health into middle age live much longer and are much healthier while they live.”
Researchers examined BMI, healthy diet, total cholesterol and blood pressure — four of the seven components of heart health — in children ages 2-11 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) in 2003-10.
In the sample of 8,961 children that represented about 43.6 million children nationwide, the researchers found that:
All children had at least one ideal measure, but none had all four.
An ideal diet score was the least prevalent health indicator, with less than 1 percent of children having four or five of the five components of a healthy diet. The five indicators of a healthy diet include low intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages and sodium, and high intakes of whole grains, fish, and fruits and vegetables.
Fewer than 10 percent ate the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (> 4.5 cups or more per day) or fish (> two 3.5 oz. servings a week) and whole grains (> three 1 oz. equivalent servings a day) were the least frequently achieved component by 3 percent of boys and 2.4 percent of girls.
Ninety percent ate more sodium than recommended by the American Heart Association (below 1500 mg/day) and more than 50 percent consumed more than the recommended number of calories from sugar-sweetened beverages (no more than 450 kcal a week).
About 30 percent of children were obese or overweight. Older children (6-11 years) had higher prevalence of obesity compared to younger ones (2-5 years), particularly in minority populations.
About 40 percent of children had intermediate or poor total cholesterol levels.
Ideal blood pressure was the most common favorable metric of cardiovascular health, ranging from 88 percent to 93 percent across sex and race/ethnicity group.
The study provides the first comprehensive national snapshot of how children rate on cardiovascular health defined in the American Heart Association’s 2020 impact goals that include: blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, blood glucose, healthy diet, physical activity and smoking. Previous studies have demonstrated worsening indicators of cardiovascular health starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood.
The study is limited by the lack of data on other measures of cardiovascular health and by the use of adult indicators of a healthy diet.
“We really need better surveillance data, especially in children,” Lloyd-Jones said. “Information on physical activity, blood glucose and smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke are not available for younger children. Without knowing how much physical activity a child is doing, and therefore how many calories are needed, we can’t scale the diet metrics to a child’s needs. So we used the adult metrics, but understand that it would be difficult for a 5-year-old to take in as many fruits and vegetables as an adult.”
“The bottom line is that we need even better data, but what we do see is that we are losing an awful lot of our intrinsic cardiovascular health very early in life, which sets us up to be unhealthy adults.”
Co-authors are Hongyan Ning, M.D., M.S.; Darwin R. Labarthe, M.D., Ph.D.; Christina M. Shay, Ph.D., M.A.; Stephen R. Daniels, M.D., Ph.D.; Lifang Hou, M.D., Ph.D.; and Linda Van Horn, Ph.D., R.D. Author disclosures are on the manuscript.
Researcher photo available on the right column of the release link http://newsroom.heart.org/news/decline-in-heart-health-can-start-in-childhood?preview=c96a8447972f083118eba38310818fa4
Follow AHA/ASA news on Twitter @HeartNews
Follow CircCVQO on Twitter: Circulation: CVQO@CircOutcomes
Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the association’s policy or position. The association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events. The association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations are available at http://www.heart.org/corporatefunding.
Public Release: 18-Mar-2015
WSU researchers show how fatty acids can fight prostate cancer
Mechanism points way to more effective drug treatment
Washington State University
SPOKANE, Wash.–Washington State University researchers have found a mechanism by which omega-3 fatty acids inhibit the growth and spread of prostate cancer cells. The findings, which are at odds with a 2013 study asserting that omega-3s increase the risk of prostate cancer, point the way to more effective anti-cancer drugs.
Scientists have long known that omega 3s reduce inflammation and have anti-diabetic effects, and some recently discovered how this happens.
“But we’re the first to show that they work this way in cancer,” said Kathryn Meier, a professor of pharmacy at WSU Spokane. “The attention has mostly been on inflammation and diabetes but there has always been an interest in cancer, and we were the first to show this mechanism in any cancer cell at all. And we’re using prostate cancer, which is the most controversial subject in omega 3s.”
A 2013 study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that men with higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had a greater risk of developing prostate cancer. It was not clear if the fatty acids came from food–certain fish, seeds and nuts are high in omega 3s–or supplements like fish oil.
Working with prostate cell cultures, Meier and two students, Ze Liu and Mandi Hopkins, found the fatty acids bind to a receptor called FFA4, for “free fatty acid receptor 4.” Rather than stimulating cancer cells, the receptor acts as a signal to inhibit growth factors, suppressing proliferation of the cancer cells.
“This kind of knowledge could lead us to better treat or prevent cancer because now we know how it works,” Meier said. The study also found that a drug mimicking the action of omega 3s can work as well or better than fatty acids in suppressing the cancer cells.
The study appears in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Meier said it is still unclear if the effect can be obtained by taking dietary supplements like fish oil. Some people don’t tolerate fish oil very well, she said. Moreover, the effect of fish oil could fade as it is digested, while data from this study suggest that an omega-3 drug needs to be in a cancer cell all the time to have an effect.
“It’s very difficult in dietary studies to tell how much to take or what form to take,” Meier said. “Should you be eating fish? Should you be taking pills? But now we have a potential drug. Once you have a drug you can test very precisely whether it works or not in a certain disease and you would know exactly how much to give people.”
Public Release: 19-Mar-2015
Vitamin D prevents diabetes and clogged arteries in mice
Washington University School of Medicine
AUDIO: In a new study of mice without vitamin D receptors on key immune system cells, Washington University researchers have found that the mice get diabetes and that the way the… view more
Credit: Washington University BioMed Radio
In recent years, a deficiency of vitamin D has been linked to type 2 diabetes and heart disease, two illnesses that commonly occur together and are the most common cause of illness and death in Western countries. Both disorders are rooted in chronic inflammation, which leads to insulin resistance and the buildup of artery-clogging plaque.
Now, new research in mice at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests vitamin D plays a major role in preventing the inflammation that leads to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Further, the way key immune cells behave without adequate vitamin D may provide scientists with new therapeutic targets for patients with those disorders.
The study appears March 19 in the journal Cell Reports.
Studying mice that lacked the ability to process vitamin D in immune cells involved in inflammation, the researchers found that the animals made excess glucose, became resistant to insulin action and accumulated plaques in their blood vessels.
“The finding that vitamin D helps regulate glucose metabolism may explain previous epidemiological studies identifying an increased risk of diabetes in patients with vitamin D deficiency,” said senior investigator Carlos Bernal-Mizrachi, MD, associate professor of medicine and of cell biology and physiology. “In our study, inactivation of the vitamin D receptor induced diabetes and atherosclerosis, so normalizing vitamin D levels may have the opposite effect.”
In addition, he said inadequate vitamin D turned immune cells into transporters of fat. That may help researchers better understand how diabetes and atherosclerosis are linked and provide new possibilities for therapy.
For years, researchers have been studying vitamin D’s possible roles in inflammation and inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. By engineering mice without the vitamin D receptor on important immune cells called monocytes and macrophages, the researchers were able to learn how those conditions are linked, according to Bernal-Mizrachi.
Monocytes are white blood cells made in the bone marrow that circulate in the bloodstream. After a few days, they typically move into the body’s tissues where they mature into cells called macrophages.
“Inactivating the vitamin D receptor on monocytes and macrophages promotes inflammation of the liver and in artery walls,” he said. “It also increases the ability of monocytes in the blood to adhere and migrate into blood vessel walls, where they deposit cholesterol and secrete inflammatory substances that lead to diabetes and heart disease.”
He said the findings suggest that getting enough vitamin D may reduce those properties in immune cells, decreasing inflammation and reducing the onset of a combination of heart disease and diabetes, which is often referred to as cardiometabolic disease. In addition, the researchers found that without vitamin D, monocytes carried fat to the walls of blood vessels, which is something that hadn’t been observed previously.
“We knew that when monocytes matured and became macrophages, they would eat cholesterol deposited inside the blood vessel wall,” said co-first author Amy E. Riek, MD, assistant professor of medicine. “But in these experiments, we found that when they don’t have vitamin D, the monocytes, while they’re still in circulation, also eat up cholesterol and carry it in the bloodstream.”
That’s an important discovery, Riek explained, because it’s much easier to find treatments that target something in the blood than it is to target the same cells after they move into the wall of a blood vessel.
“So that provides us, potentially, with a new target for therapy,” she said.
It also changes the way that scientists think about how lipids are carried into the blood vessel wall to cause plaques. Scientists already knew that LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, carried fat deposits to the vessel wall. Now this study suggests that when monocytes don’t have enough vitamin D, they can do it, too.
“The monocytes were laden with fat in the absence of vitamin D receptor,” Bernal-Mizrachi said. “And they carried that fat into the artery, so that’s a new understanding of another way fat may get into blood-vessel walls in patients who are vitamin D deficient.”
Interestingly, the problem was reversible in the mice. When the animals that had developed type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis received bone marrow transplants from mice with healthy vitamin D receptors on their monocytes and macrophages, their inflammation levels decreased, and the animals had lower blood glucose and became more sensitive to insulin.
Currently, Bernal-Mizrachi and Riek are conducting clinical studies in people who have type 2 diabetes, treating them with vitamin D to see whether it can prevent some of the complications of diabetes and inflammation in humans, too.
“As part of that study, we’re actually isolating monocytes from the blood of patients before and after vitamin D therapy,” Riek said. “So we can look at the inflammatory properties of those cells to see whether vitamin D is causing any changes.”
Funded by grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Children’s Discovery Institute, and the American Diabetes Association. NIH grant numbers R01HL094818-0, K12HD001459, UL1 TR000448, KL2 TR000450. T32 DK007120 and P60DK20579.
Oh J, Riek AE, Darwech I, Funai K, Shao JS, Chin K, Sierra OL, Carmelier G, Ostlund RE, Bernal-Mizrachi C. Deletion of macrophage vitamin D receptor promotes insulin resistance and monocyte cholesterol transport to accelerate atherosclerosis in mice. Cell Reports, published online March 19, 2015.
Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked sixth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.
Public Release: 20-Mar-2015
Stinging nettle chemical improves cancer drug
A cancer drug could be made 50 times more effective by a chemical found in stinging nettles and ants, new research finds
University of Warwick
A cancer drug could be made 50 times more effective by a chemical found in stinging nettles and ants, new research finds.
Researchers at the University of Warwick found that when the chemical, Sodium Formate, is used in combination with a metal-based cancer treatment it can greatly increase its ability to shut down cancer cells.
Developed by Warwick’s Department of Chemistry, the drug, a compound of the metal ruthenium called JS07, is capable of exploiting a cancer cell’s natural weaknesses and disrupts its energy generation mechanism.
Laboratory tests on ovarian cancer cells have shown that when used in combination with Sodium Formate JS07 is 50 times more effective than when acting alone.
Derived from formic acid which is commonly found in a number of natural organisms including nettles and ants, Sodium Formate (E-237) is more commonly used as a food preservative.
The Warwick researchers developed a novel method for binding Sodium Formate with JS07 to form a more potent form of the drug.
The researchers subsequently found that the potent form of JS07 acts as a catalyst when it interacts with a cancer cell’s energy-generating mechanism. This interaction disrupts the mechanism, causing the cell’s vital processes to cease functioning and for the cell to shut down.
Lead-researcher Professor Peter Sadler explains:
“Cancer cells require a complex balance of processes to survive. When this balance is disrupted the cell is unable to function due to a range of process failures and eventually shuts down. The potent form of JS07 has proven to be very successful when tested on ovarian cancer cells”.
The combination of Sodium Formate and JS07 provides a number of potential benefits to cancer patients, including a reduction in the negative side-effects compared with other traditional cancer treatments:
“By itself, JS07 is capable of shutting down cancer cells but when used in combination with Sodium Formate this ability is significantly increased. As a result, lower doses would be required to target cancer cells – reducing both the drug’s toxicity and potential side-effects.”, says Professor Sadler.
A further benefit is that once the potent form of JS07 has interacted with a cell’s energy generation mechanism the remaining non-potent JS07 molecules can then be reused in combination with a fresh supply of Sodium Formate.
“When the potent form of JS07 interacts with a cell’s energy generation mechanism, the Sodium Formate is used up in the process, but the JS07 itself is still viable to be used again. When it comes into contact with fresh supply of Sodium Formate it can again become potent, making this an efficient potential treatment”.
The research could also lead to substantial improvements in cancer survival rates. Co-researcher Dr Romero-Canelon says:
“Current statistics indicate that one in every three people will develop some kind of cancer during their life time, moreover approximately one woman dies of ovarian cancer every two hours in the UK according to Cancer Research UK. It is clear that a new generation of drugs is necessary to save more lives and our research points to a highly effective way of defeating cancerous cells”
The research, Transfer hydrogenation catalysis in cells as a new approach to anticancer drug design, is published by Nature Communications.
Notes for Editors:
This research was supported by the ERC (grant no. 247450), EPSRC (grant no. EP/F034210/1), University of Warwick IAS (fellowship for JJSB) and Science City (ERDF/AWM).
Sodium Formate, E-237, is an approved food additive – http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e237.htm
High-dose zinc acetate lozenges may help shorten symptoms associated with the common cold
Zinc acetate lozenges may shorten common cold-associated nasal discharge by 34 percent and cough by 54 percent
University of Helsinki
According to a meta-analysis published in BMC Family Practice, high dose zinc acetate lozenges may help shorten diverse symptoms associated with the common cold.
The common cold is an infection caused by over a hundred viruses, and it is a major cause of days off school or work and visits to a doctor.
A previous meta-analysis of three randomized trials found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges shorten the duration of colds by 42%. Since all of the three studies reported the duration of diverse respiratory symptoms and of systemic symptoms such as muscle ache and headache, Harri Hemilä from Helsinki, Finland and Elizabeth Chalker from Sydney, Australia decided to investigate whether there are differences in the effect of zinc lozenges on different common-cold symptoms.
When zinc acetate lozenges dissolve in the mouth, zinc ions are released into the saliva of the pharyngeal region where the levels are consequently high. Therefore the effects of zinc lozenges might be greatest on symptoms of the pharyngeal region such as sore throat, and less on nasal symptoms. However, when Hemilä and Chalker pooled together the results of the three studies, they found no evidence that the effects of zinc lozenges are less for nasal symptoms compared with respiratory symptoms originating from lower anatomical regions.
According to the calculations by Hemilä and Chalker, high dose zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34%, nasal congestion by 37%, sneezing by 22%, scratchy throat by 33%, sore throat by 18%, hoarseness by 43%, and cough by 46%. Furthermore, they found strong evidence that zinc lozenges also shortened the duration of muscle ache by 54%. On the other hand, there was no evidence of zinc effect on the duration of headache and fever. However, the latter two symptoms were infrequent in the three studies and therefore no definite conclusions can be drawn on headache and fever.
Adverse effects of zinc were minor in the three studies. Therefore Hemilä and Chalker conclude from their research that “zinc acetate lozenges releasing zinc ions at doses of about 80 mg/day may be a useful treatment for the common cold, started within 24 hours, for a time period of less than two weeks.”
Public Release: 23-Mar-2015
Study: Zinc deficiency linked to immune system response, particularly in older adults
IMAGE: Oysters are high in zinc. view more
Credit: Oregon State University
CORVALLIS, Ore. – Zinc, an important mineral in human health, appears to affect how the immune system responds to stimulation, especially inflammation, new research from Oregon State University shows.
Zinc deficiency could play a role in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes that involve inflammation. Such diseases often show up in older adults, who are more at risk for zinc deficiency.
“When you take away zinc, the cells that control inflammation appear to activate and respond differently; this causes the cells to promote more inflammation,” said Emily Ho, a professor and director of the Moore Family Center for Whole Grain Foods, Nutrition and Preventive Health in the OSU College of Public Health and Human Sciences, and lead author of the study.
Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for many biological processes, including growth and development, neurological function and immunity. It is naturally found in protein-rich foods such as meat and shellfish, with oysters among the highest in zinc content.
Approximately 12 percent of people in the U.S. do not consume enough zinc in their diets. Of those 65 and older, closer to 40 percent do not consume enough zinc, Ho said. Older adults tend to eat fewer zinc-rich foods and their bodies do not appear to use or absorb zinc as well, making them highly susceptible to zinc deficiency.
“It’s a double-whammy for older individuals,” said Ho, who also is a principal investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute.
In the study, researchers set out to better understand the relationship between zinc deficiency and inflammation. They conducted experiments that indicated zinc deficiency induced an increase in inflammatory response in cells. The researchers were able to show, for the first time, that reducing zinc caused improper immune cell activation and dysregulation of a cytokine IL-6, a protein that affects inflammation in the cell, Ho said.
Researchers also compared zinc levels in living mice, young and old. The older mice had low zinc levels that corresponded with increased chronic inflammation and decreased IL-6 methylation, which is an epigenetic mechanism that cells use to control gene expression. Decreased IL-6 methylation also was found in human immune cells from elderly people, Ho said.
Together, the studies suggest a potential link between zinc deficiency and increased inflammation that can occur with age, she said.
The findings were published recently in the journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Co-authors are Carmen P. Wong and Nicole A. Rinaldi of the College of Public Health. The research was supported by the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Bayer Consumer Care AG of Switzerland, and OSU.
Understanding the role of zinc in the body is important to determining whether dietary guidelines for zinc need to be adjusted. The recommended daily intake of zinc for adults is 8 milligrams for women and 11 milligrams for men, regardless of age. The guidelines may need to be adjusted for older adults to ensure they are getting enough zinc, Ho said.
There is no good clinical biomarker test to determine if people are getting enough zinc, so identifying zinc deficiency can be difficult. In addition, the body does not have much ability to store zinc, so regular intake is important, Ho said. Getting too much zinc can cause other problems, including interfering with other minerals. The current upper limit for zinc is 40 milligrams per day.
“We think zinc deficiency is probably a bigger problem than most people realize,” she said. “Preventing that deficiency is important.”
Understanding why older adults do not take in zinc as well is an important area for future research, Ho said. Additional research also is needed to better understand how zinc works in the body, she said.
Public Release: 23-Mar-2015
New low-calorie rice could help cut rising obesity rates
American Chemical Society
IMAGE: A new, easy method for cooking rice could reduce calories by as much as 60 percent. view more
Credit: Anoja Megalathan, Institute of Chemistry, College of Chemical Sciences, Sri Lanka
DENVER, March 23, 2015 — Scientists have developed a new, simple way to cook rice that could cut the number of calories absorbed by the body by more than half, potentially reducing obesity rates, which is especially important in countries where the food is a staple.
The presentation will take place here at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world’s largest scientific society. The meeting features nearly 11,000 reports on new advances in science and other topics. It is being held through Thursday.
The number of people who are overweight or obese is steadily increasing. As lifestyles change and people become more sedentary, their diets also change. Serving sizes grow, and more food options become available. In addition to consuming more fats and sugars, people may choose to fill up on starchy carbohydrates like rice, which has about 240 calories per cup.
“Because obesity is a growing health problem, especially in many developing countries, we wanted to find food-based solutions,” says team leader Sudhair A. James, who is at the College of Chemical Sciences, Colombo, Western, Sri Lanka. “We discovered that increasing rice resistant starch (RS) concentrations was a novel way to approach the problem.” By using a specific heating and cooking regimen, he says, the scientists concluded that “if the best rice variety is processed, it might reduce the calories by about 50-60 percent.”
He explains that starch can be digestible or indigestible. Starch is a component of rice, and it has both types. Unlike digestible types of starch, RS is not broken down in the small intestine, where carbohydrates normally are metabolized into glucose and other simple sugars and absorbed into the bloodstream. Thus, the researchers reasoned that if they could transform digestible starch into RS, then that could lower the number of usable calories of the rice.
And rice is loaded with starch (1.6 ounces in a cup), says James. “After your body converts carbohydrates into glucose, any leftover fuel gets converted into a polysaccharide carbohydrate called glycogen,” he explains. “Your liver and muscles store glycogen for energy and quickly turn it back into glucose as needed. The issue is that the excess glucose that doesn’t get converted to glycogen ends up turning into fat, which can lead to excessive weight or obesity.”
The team experimented with 38 kinds of rice from Sri Lanka, developing a new way of cooking rice that increased the RS content. In this method, they added a teaspoon of coconut oil to boiling water. Then, they added a half a cup of rice. They simmered this for 40 minutes, but one could boil it for 20-25 minutes instead, the researchers note. Then, they refrigerated it for 12 hours. This procedure increased the RS by 10 times for traditional, non-fortified rice.
How can such a simple change in cooking result in a lower-calorie food? James explains that the oil enters the starch granules during cooking, changing its architecture so that it becomes resistant to the action of digestive enzymes. This means that fewer calories ultimately get absorbed into the body. “The cooling is essential because amylose, the soluble part of the starch, leaves the granules during gelatinization,” explains James. “Cooling for 12 hours will lead to formation of hydrogen bonds between the amylose molecules outside the rice grains which also turns it into a resistant starch.” Reheating the rice for consumption, he notes, does not affect the RS levels.
He says that the next step will be to complete studies with human subjects to learn which varieties of rice might be best suited to the calorie-reduction process. The team also will check out whether other oils besides coconut have this effect.
A press conference on this topic will be held Wednesday, March 25, at 11:30 a.m. Mountain time in the Colorado Convention Center. Reporters may check-in at Room 104 in person, or watch live on YouTube http://bit.ly/ACSLiveDenver. To ask questions, sign in with a Google account.
James acknowledges funding from the College of Chemical Sciences, Industrial Technology Institute, Sri Lanka and other sources.
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) resistant starch and novel processing methods to increase resistant starch concentration
Obesity is an emerging health crisis in many developing countries. To find food based solutions for obesity, rice resistant starch (RS) concentrations and novel ways to increase RS concentrations were studied. A total of 38 Sri Lankan rice varieties were tested; the RS concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 4.65%. The traditional rice varieties had significantly higher RS concentrations than old and improved varieties. Bg 305 had the least RS concentration out of all. However, applying different heating and cooling conditions with pure coconut oil showed RS concentrations increased by at least 10 times. The increase in RS content could be attributed to the increase in RS3 and RS5 types, suggesting potential to increase these types of RS in rice. This study results clearly show that rice, when cooked properly, could be a good low calorie food source for obesity reduction. In-vivo glycemic effects of RS studies are in progress.
Public Release: 24-Mar-2015
Milk could be good for your brain
New research at KU Medical Center finds a possible correlation between milk consumption and brain health
University of Kansas Medical Center
New research conducted at the University of Kansas Medical Center has found a correlation between milk consumption and the levels of a naturally-occurring antioxidant called glutathione in the brain in older, healthy adults.
In-Young Choi, Ph.D., an associate professor of neurology at KU Medical Center, and Debra Sullivan, Ph.D., professor and chair of dietetics and nutrition at KU Medical Center, worked together on the project. Their research, which was published in the Feb. 3, 2015 edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggests a new way that drinking milk could benefit the body.
“We have long thought of milk as being very important for your bones and very important for your muscles,” Sullivan said. “This study suggests that it could be important for your brain as well.”
Choi’s team asked the 60 participants in the study about their diets in the days leading up to brain scans, which they used to monitor levels of glutathione – a powerful antioxidant – in the brain.
The researchers found that participants who had indicated they had drunk milk recently had higher levels of glutathione in their brains. This is important, the researchers said, because glutathione could help stave off oxidative stress and the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and many other conditions, said Dr. Choi.
“You can basically think of this damage like the buildup of rust on your car,” Sullivan said. “If left alone for a long time, the buildup increases and it can cause damaging effects.
Few Americans reach the recommended daily intake of three dairy servings per day, Sullivan said. The new study showed that the closer older adults came to those servings, the higher their levels of glutathione were.
“If we can find a way to fight this by instituting lifestyle changes including diet and exercise, it could have major implications for brain health,” Choi said.
An editorial in the same edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition said the study presented “a provocative new benefit of the consumption of milk in older individuals,” and served as a starting point for further study of the issue.
“Antioxidants are a built-in defense system for our body to fight against this damage, and the levels of antioxidants in our brain can be regulated by various factors such as diseases and lifestyle choices,” Choi said.
For the study, researchers used high-tech brain scanning equipment housed at KU Medical Center’s Hoglund Brain Imaging Center. “Our equipment enables us to understand complex processes occurring that are related to health and disease,” Choi said. “The advanced magnetic resonance technology allowed us to be in a unique position to get the best pictures of what was going on in the brain.”
A randomized, controlled trial that seeks to determine the precise effect of milk consumption on the brain is still needed and is a logical next step to this study, the researchers said.
The study was funded by the Dairy Research Institute.
Public Release: 25-Mar-2015
Pregnant women not getting enough omega-3, critical for infant development
APrON study suggests pregnant & lactating women not meeting recommended intake
Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press)
This news release is available in French.
Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) is a birth cohort involving over two thousand women and their infants from Calgary and Edmonton that was funded by Alberta Innovates Health Solutions and includes researchers at the University of Alberta and the University of Calgary. The main objective of APrON is to understand the relationship between maternal nutrient status during pregnancy and maternal mental health and child health and development. As part of the project, the APrON team studied the first 600 women in the cohort during and after their pregnancy to see whether they were consuming enough omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-LCPUFA) to meet current recommendations. The team has just published their results in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.
Omega-3 LCPUFA include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A source of these is required during pregnancy for fetal and placental development and is critical for the development of the infant, particularly for brain development.
The American Dietetic Association along with Dietitians of Canada recommends that all healthy adults including pregnant and lactating women consume at least 500 mg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA. The European Commission and the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) specifically recommends that pregnant and lactating women consume a minimum of 200 mg DHA per day.
The women from this group of APrON participant lived in Edmonton and Calgary. The team found that the majority of participants, despite a high level of education and income, were not meeting these recommendations for omega-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy and lactation.
According to the study: “Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at three months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. Results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation.”
The current study found women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. Recommendations could also be met by following the Health Canada recommendation to consume one to two portions per week of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids.
The results of this also study suggests that nutritional counseling and education about benefits of a supplement source of LCPUFA should extend beyond pregnancy as 44% percent of the women in the cohort who reported taking a supplement during pregnancy were no longer taking these supplements when breast feeding at three months postpartum.
The current study provides useful information for health practitioners and for future interventions (dietary or supplement recommendations) aimed at helping women obtain LCPUFA in their diet to ensure they are able to meet the needs of their infants.
The study “Women who take n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake” by Xiaoming Jia, Mohammadreza Pakseresht, Nour Wattar, Jamie Wildgrube, Stephanie Sontag, Murphy Andrews, Fatheema Begum Subhan, Linda McCargar, Catherine J Field* and the APrON study team was published today in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.
Please cite Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism as the source of this story and include hyperlink to research study dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2014-0313
Public Release: 25-Mar-2015
HBV exposure matures infants’ immune systems
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore
A Singapore led study has shown that Hepatitis B Virus Infection (HBV) exposure increases the immune system maturation of infants, which may give a better survival advantage to counteract bacterial infection during early life. These findings radically modify the way that HBV vertical infection of neonates (mother-to-child) is portrayed, and present a paradigm shift in the approach to treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B.
The research, published in Nature Communications on 25 March 2015, was led by Professor Antonio Bertoletti from the Emerging Infectious Diseases Program (EID) at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Duke-NUS).
Currently widespread in Asia, HBV affects approximately 300 million people worldwide while 6 in 100 Singaporeans are chronic carriers. The majority of HBV chronic infections in Asia are acquired at birth. While there is a safe and effective vaccine available, 5% to 10% of babies born to HBV positive mothers still contract the infection. Conventionally, HBV is thought to exploit the immaturity of the neonatal immune system to establish persistent infection.
Current guidelines from international liver associations recommend treatment for HBV carriers only when they show clear signs of active liver disease, typically after the age of 30. This is based on the assumptions that HBV is considered harmless until symptoms of the disease emerge, and that young patients are immune-tolerant to HBV, meaning they have no protective response to the virus and are unable to react to treatment.
Prof Bertoletti, in collaboration with the National University Hospital (Singapore) and Universitaria di Parma (Italy), showed that contrary to current belief, infants exposed to HBV are not immune-tolerant but they have more mature immune systems. The team examined the immune cells in the cord blood of mothers who were HBV positive and discovered that both the innate and adaptive immune cells are more activated and mature, and they respond better to bacteria challenge, a phenomenon called “trained immunity”. These suggest that their immune cells may be more acclimatised to dealing with potential bacterial infections than the cells from cord blood of healthy mothers.
First author, Duke-NUS Research Fellow Michelle Hong, is heartened about contributing to the understanding of a disease that is endemic in Asia. “Our work contributes to the understanding of how HBV exposure before birth shapes the global immune response of newborn infants and transforms the way we look at HBV. Despite causing diseases later in life, HBV might actually be beneficial to humans early in life.”
Previously, Prof Bertoletti had shown that young adults (aged 14 to 30) with chronic HBV infection are not immune tolerant and possess immune cells able to counter the virus. Moving forward, he plans to examine the impact of HBV infection in paediatric patients; those aged two to 12, to determine how their immune system responds to the virus. The combined findings from these different studies are poised to shape the guidelines for chronic HBV treatment in patients – starting from young adults’ or even earlier.
Public Release: 26-Mar-2015
Chikungunya virus may be coming to a city near you — learn the facts
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus has been the subject of increasing attention as it spreads throughout South America, Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico. This painful and potentially debilitating disease is predicted to soon spread to the U.S.
The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston’s Scott Weaver, globally recognized for his expertise in mosquito-borne diseases, has been studying chikungunya for more than 15 years. Weaver and fellow infectious disease expert Marc Lecuit of the Institut Pasteur have summarized currently available information on this disease in the March 26 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Since chikungunya was first identified in1952 in present-day Tanzania, the virus has been confirmed in other African countries, Asia, The South Pacific and Europe. In Dec. 2013, the first locally acquired case of chikungunya in the Americas was reported in the Caribbean.
Since then, chikungunya has been identified in 44 countries or territories throughout the Americas with more than 1.3 million suspected cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from affected areas.
Symptoms appear about three days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms and signs are fever and severe joint pain and may include headache, arthritis, muscle pain, weakness and rash. Some patients will feel better within a week but others develop longer-term joint pain that can last weeks to years. Death is rare but can occur. People at increased risk for severe disease include young children, older adults and people with medical conditions such as diabetes or heart disease.
Other than anti-inflammatory drugs to control symptoms and joint swelling, there are no specific therapies to treat infected persons and no licensed vaccines to prevent chikungunya fever.
“Chikungunya continues to be a major threat to public health around the world,” said Weaver. “Until there is a treatment or vaccine, the control of chikungunya fever will rely on mosquito reduction and limiting the contact between humans and the two virus-carrying mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.”
These efforts generally focus on reducing or treating standing water and water storage containers where eggs are laid and larvae develop as well as wearing protective clothing and/or insect repellent.
Current research is focused on better understanding how exactly the virus enters and multiplies within the human and mosquito body. Researchers are also learning more about why some people develop long-term chronic joint pain after the initial chikungunya fever while others do not.
Several promising chikungunya vaccine candidates have reached late preclinical or phase one clinical testing, but final development will require major commercial investments. Another challenge to vaccine development lies in targeting locations where there will be many cases of chikungunya fever to set up and conduct clinical trials.
Weaver is the director of the UTMB Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, scientific director of the Galveston National Laboratory and leads the Global Virus Network’s Chikungunya Task Force.
Public Release: 26-Mar-2015
Roseroot herb shows promise as potential depression treatment option, Penn team finds
Study is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparison trial of oral R. rosea extract versus conventional antidepressant for mild to moderate major depressive disorder
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
PHILADELPHIA — Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), or roseroot, may be a beneficial treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD), according to results of a study in the journal Phytomedicine led by Jun J. Mao, MD, MSCE, associate professor of Family Medicine, Community Health and Epidemiology and colleagues at the Perelman School of Medicine of University of Pennsylvania.
The proof of concept trial study is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparison trial of oral R. rosea extract versus the conventional antidepressant therapy sertraline for mild to moderate major depressive disorder.
Depression is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric conditions, afflicting more than 19 million Americans each year, 70 percent of whom do not fully respond to initial therapy. Costs of conventional antidepressants and their sometimes substantial side effects often result in a patient discontinuing use prematurely. Others opt to try natural products or supplements instead.
All of the study’s 57 adult participants, enrolled from December 2010 and April 2013, had a DSM IV Axis 1 diagnosis of MDD, meaning they exhibited two or more major depressive episodes, depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in life activities for at least 2 weeks, as well as symptoms including significant unintentional weight loss or gain, insomnia or sleeping too much, fatigue, and diminished ability to think or concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death.
The participants received 12 weeks of standardized R. rosea extract, sertraline, or placebo. Changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) change scores were measured among groups.
Patients who took sertraline were somewhat more likely – as measured by Ham-D scores – to report improvement in their symptoms by week 12 of treatment than those who took R. rosea, although these differences were not found to be statistically significant. Patients taking R. rosea had 1.4 times the odds of improvement, and patients on sertraline had 1.9 times the odds of improvement versus those on a placebo. However, patients on sertraline experienced twice the side effects – most commonly nausea and sexual dysfunction — than those on R. rosea: 63 percent versus 30 percent, respectively, reported side effects. These findings suggest that R. rosea may possess a more favorable risk to benefit ratio for individuals with mild to moderate major depressive disorder.
“These results are a bit preliminary but suggest that herbal therapy may have the potential to help patients with depression who cannot tolerate conventional antidepressants due to side effects,” Mao said. “Larger studies will be needed to fully evaluate the benefit and harm of R. rosea as compared to conventional antidepressants.”
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health Center for Complementary and Integrative Health R21 AT005230, and the Jack Warsaw Fund for Research in Biological Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. Mao was also supported by the National Institutes of Health Center for Complementary and Integrative Health K23 AT004112.
To access the abstract and full article, please visit: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Qer83MpM~M8mB
Penn Medicine is one of the world’s leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation’s first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.
The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States for the past 17 years, according to U.S. News & World Report’s survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation’s top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $392 million awarded in the 2013 fiscal year.
The University of Pennsylvania Health System’s patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania — recognized as one of the nation’s top “Honor Roll” hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; Chester County Hospital; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital — the nation’s first hospital, founded in 1751. Additional affiliated inpatient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.
Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2013, Penn Medicine provided $814 million to benefit our community.