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166

Health Research Report

WHITE PAPER /ROUGH COPY

166th Issue Date 19 OCT 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

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In this issue:

Reversing walking corpse syndrome: Cotard’s Syndrome trigger found – and it’s a household cold sore cream

NAC amino acid offers a potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders

Imaging Technology Can Eliminate Need for Biopsy in Liver Disease

Multivitamins with minerals may protect older women with invasive breast cancer

Study: Herbal products omit ingredients, contain fillers

Oral nutritional supplement use in pediatric inpatients decrease hospital stay and costs

Compound in Grapes, Red Wine Could Help Treat Multiple Types of Cancer, Study Finds

Compound derived from vegetables shields rodents from lethal radiation doses

Vitamin D does not contribute to kidney stones, study asserts

High serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content protects against brain abnormalities

Reversing walking corpse syndrome: Cotard’s Syndrome trigger found – and it’s a household cold sore cream

Drug commonly used to treat herpes virus used by those with renal failure has been linked to syndrome that leads people to believe they are dead

Heather Saul

Friday, 18 October 2013

Pharmacologists have discovered one of the mechanisms that triggers Cotard’s syndrome, a condition causing people to feel as if they have died, or parts of their bodies are dead or no longer exist.

People in the grip of a Cotard’s delusion can also believe they have ‘lost’ their blood and internal organs, such as their brain, and cannot respond to any rational reasoning with them that they are in fact alive.

Acyclovir, also known as Zovirax, is a drug commonly used to treat cold sores and the herpes virus, as well as chicken pox and shingles.

Just one per cent of people who use the drug will experience some psychiatric effects, including Cotard’s.

A link between renal failure, using the drug and Cotard’s has now been highlighted by pharmacologists pooling data from hospital admission records and Swedish drug databases.

In a study published in Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Swedish pharmacologists identified eight people with acyclovir-induced Cotard’s from data collected.

The link was made after a woman suffering from shingles began showing symptoms of Cotard delusions after using acyclovir as a treatment, New Scientist have reported.

The woman ran into a hospital in an extremely anxious state, author of the research Anders Helldén from the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm said. After receiving dialysis, the woman explained that she had felt anxious because she had been overwhelmed by a strong feeling that she was dead.

Within a few hours her symptoms began to ease, until she felt that she was “pretty sure” she wasn’t dead, but remained adamant her left arm did not belong to her. After 24 hours, her symptoms had disappeared.

Blood analysis later revealed that acyclovir, which can normally be broken down in the body before being flushed out by the kidneys, can leave low levels of breakdown product CMMG in the body.

Blood tests of those who had Cotard’s symptoms showed much higher levels of CMMG. All but one of those tested also had renal failure.

Helldén and co-author of the study Thomas Lindén, of the Sahlgrenska Academy in Gothenburg, found that lowering the dose of the drug or removing it all together appeared to stop the symptoms.

“Several of the patients developed very high blood pressure,” Helldén said, “so we have a feeling that CMMG is causing some kind of constriction of the arteries in the brain.”

Helldén believes that this discovery provides a theory of how to effectively turn Cotard’s on and off, although further research is needed

NAC amino acid offers a potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders

This press release is in support of a presentation by Professor Michael Berk on Monday Oct. 7 at the 26th ECNP Congress in Barcelona, Spain

BARCELONA, SPAIN (7 October 2013) – Improved understanding of the roles of inflammation and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders has generated new leads in the search for novel therapies. One such investigative compound currently in clinical trials is an amino acid, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), which appears to reduce the core symptoms of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, autism and cravings in addictions including cocaine, cannabis abuse and cigarette smoking.

At the start of the decade of the brain, in the early 1990s, there was great hope that a flurry of new treatment discoveries would eventuate. In contrast, today, most pharmaceutical companies have a drying psychiatry and neurology pipeline and many have exited the field entirely. “One of the factors has been an over reliance on typical monoamine pathways as targets for drug discovery,” said Professor Michael Berk, Chair in Psychiatry at Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Professor Berk pointed out that the situation regarding new drug development for psychiatric problems was best summarised by former National Institute for Mental Health Director, Steven Hyman: “drug discovery is at a near standstill for treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and common forms of autism.”

Beyond the monoamine-based drugs, neuroscience has elucidated an array of other important pathways that are involved in most major psychiatric disorders, for example schizophrenia and both unipolar and bipolar depression. According to Professor Berk, there is now an incontrovertible evidence base that these disorders share inflammation and oxidative stress as part of their disease physiology. In addition, associated pathways including reduction in proteins that stimulate neuronal growth (neurotrophins), and increased cell death (apoptosis), as well as energy generation in organelles called mitochondria are intimately involved. “This understanding provides an entirely new set of treatment targets.”

The amino acid, NAC, seems to have multiple effects on all these pathways: it boosts glutathione, which is the body’s major antioxidant defence; has anti-inflammatory properties; enhances levels of nerve cell growth proteins and the growth of new neurons; and reduces cell death pathways. It also appears to reduce dysfunction of mitochondria.

These molecular effects of NAC have been investigated in a series of clinical trials, which show that NAC reduces the core symptoms of schizophrenia including negative symptoms such as improved apathy, social interaction and motivation. It also appears to reduce depression in people with bipolar disorder and at this meeting, new data on its role in unipolar major depression was presented. Furthermore, there is intriguing evidence that it reduces cravings in a number of addictions including cocaine, cannabis and cigarette smoking. “Apart from nausea, it appears to be relatively free of problematic side effects,” said Professor Berk.

In addition to NAC, a range of other compounds that target similar pathways, particularly inflammation, seem to have therapeutic potential. These include aspirin, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, statins, omega-3 fatty acids and even some anti-diabetic agents such as pioglitazone. “Capitalising on our understanding of inflammation and oxidative stress in major psychiatric disorders appears to give us an entirely new range of potential treatments for these common, severe and disabling conditions,” said Professor Berk.

Imaging Technology Can Eliminate Need for Biopsy in Liver Disease

Contributing Author Claire Duplan

Survival in diseases such as cancer has been significantly increased by the use of biopsies and similar diagnostic techniques, but these can often be painful and invasive. Eliminating these difficult procedures, without losing diagnostic accuracy, can greatly improve patient experiences. Techniques that can achieve this are useful in all fields of medicine, but they are particularly important in pediatric medicine, so the development of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) as a tool for the detection of fibrosis caused by liver disease in children will be particularly important, since this type of disease is likely to become more common in the future.

Non-Invasive Imaging Technology

Researchers from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital have demonstrated that MRE is an effective technique for detecting symptoms of chronic liver disease in pediatric patients. The study, published in the Journal of Pediatrics, evaluated the technique by comparing the results of MRE and conventional liver biopsies in 35 pediatric patients aged between 4 and 20. The results demonstrated that MRE was providing accurate diagnoses of chronic liver conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). If this work is validated by further trials in larger patient populations, then MRE could join similar non-invasive technologies in providing diagnosis without the need for surgical or needle biopsies. According to Licensed Prescriptions, handheld scanners have already enabled dermatologists to assess melanoma risk, reducing the number of patients who have to undergo biopsy. Further reducing the need for invasive techniques by introducing technologies such as MRE will continue to make the detection of disease cheaper and easier, as well as making the patient’s experience less unpleasant.

Replacing Liver Biopsies with MRE

The standard technique for evaluating liver damage is a needle biopsy. This invasive technique is costly and comes with the risk of certain side effects, which can be eliminated by the use of a cheaper, non-invasive technique. MRE has been used on more than 200 children at Cincinnati Children’s, with no adverse side effects. Undergoing a biopsy can also be traumatic, particularly for young children and teenagers, so finding a means of assessing the liver without using a needle could make treatment easier for both doctors and patients.

The study authors believe that the use of MRE could help to improve the quality of care and to reduce dependence on biopsies. Co-author Daniel Podberesky, MD, who is the chief of thoracoabdominal imaging at the hospital, suggests that “Having the ability to easily and non-invasively assess the degree of fibrosis in a child’s liver could help us to identify the issue early and begin the right course of treatment in a timely and effective manner.”

Benefits of MRE

MRE combines the use of low frequency sound waves and magnetic resonance to measure the stiffness of liver tissue, which gives an indication of how damaged it is, in a matter of minutes. MRE can also provide additional information about the health of the liver than is possible with a conventional biopsy, by measuring the quantity of fat stored in the liver. This information could help to determine how successful clinical interventions have been. Lead scientist Stavra Xanthakos, MD, suggests that MRE might provide a means of assessing changes in the liver following treatment, or predicting and monitoring the course of disease. Replacing biopsies with MRE could enable closer monitoring by allowing more frequent assessments of the liver, since there would be no need to undergo an invasive procedure every time measurements are taken.

MRE is superior to biopsy because it is non-invasive, but it has also proven to be more accurate than other non-invasive techniques that have been used as alternatives for assessing damage to the liver. The ultrasound-based technologies that have previously been used were often unreliable, particularly in the highest risk patients. One of the main risk factors for liver disease is obesity, and ultrasound is unable to accurately assess the health of the liver in overweight patients. MRE offers a non-invasive alternative that can be relied upon even for these obese individuals, and in children.

Rise of Liver Disease in Children Requires Better Diagnostic Techniques

The ability to detect conditions like NAFLD early is becoming increasingly important as they begin to affect children and teenagers more frequently due to changes in lifestyle that are putting people at risk at a younger age. Obesity is a significant risk factor for liver disease, and with growing numbers of seriously overweight children, doctors are being confronted with more young patients whose livers have already been damaged. It is estimated that about 13 percent of adolescents in the US have been affected by NAFLD, which is a progressive disease that can eventually lead to liver failure. Finding non-invasive techniques that can help us to detect and monitor these types of conditions could ensure that these young people receive treatment that is as early and effective as possible.

Multivitamins with minerals may protect older women with invasive breast cancer

October 9, 2013 — (BRONX, NY) — Findings from a study involving thousands of postmenopausal women suggest that women who develop invasive breast cancer may benefit from taking supplements containing both multivitamins and minerals. The new research, published today in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, found that the risk of dying from invasive breast cancer was 30 percent lower among multivitamin/mineral users compared with nonusers.

“Our study offers tentative but intriguing evidence that multivitamin/mineral supplements may help older women who develop invasive breast cancer survive their disease,” said Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Ph.D., lead author of the study and distinguished university professor emerita of epidemiology and population health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

Multivitamin/mineral supplements are the most commonly consumed dietary supplements among U.S. adults. They usually contain 20-30 vitamins and minerals, often at levels of 100 percent of U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances or less, and the usual label recommendation is to take them daily.

The research was conducted as part of the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Combined, the two studies include data from 161,608 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 when they first joined the study. These women were enrolled at 40 clinical centers throughout the United States during the years 1993-1998.

The current study focused on 7,728 participants who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during the WHI and were followed for an average of seven years after their diagnosis. Invasive breast cancer is defined as cancer that has spread outside the membrane of the milk glands or ducts and into the breast tissue. Two common types of invasive breast cancer are invasive ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma.

After enrolling in the WHI and during repeated follow-up visits, all participants provided extensive information about their health including whether or not they had taken a multivitamin/mineral supplement at least once a week during the prior two weeks.

About 38percent of the 7,728 women who developed invasive breast cancer during the WHI were using the supplements. The vast majority were taking the supplements before their breast-cancer diagnosis. A comparison of mortality rates revealed that women with invasive breast cancer who took multivitamin/mineral supplements were 30 percent less likely to die from their cancers than women with invasive breast cancer who hadn’t taken the supplements.

Could differences between the multivitamin/mineral users and nonusers account for this finding? The researchers looked at many possible confounding factors including additional supplements that the women took, their smoking status, education, race/ethnicity, weight, depression, alcohol use, physical activity, age at breast cancer diagnosis, and diabetes. The association between regular use of multivitamin/mineral supplements and reduced risk of death persisted even after these factors were taken into account.

“Controlling for these other factors strengthens our confidence that the association we observed – between taking multivitamin/mineral supplements and lowering breast-cancer mortality risk among postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer – is a real one,” said Dr. Wassertheil-Smoller, who also holds the Dorothy and William Manealoff Foundation and Molly Rosen Chair in Social Medicine Emerita. “But further studies are needed to confirm whether there truly is a cause-and-effect relationship here. And our findings certainly cannot be generalized to premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive cancer or to other populations of women.”

Study: Herbal products omit ingredients, contain fillers

Consumers of natural health products beware. The majority of herbal products on the market contain ingredients not listed on the label, with most companies substituting cheaper alternatives and using fillers, according to new research from the University of Guelph.

The study, published today in the open access journal BMC Medicine, used DNA barcoding technology to test 44 herbal products sold by 12 companies.

Only two of the companies provided authentic products without substitutions, contaminants or fillers.

Overall, nearly 60 per cent of the herbal products contained plant species not listed on the label.

Researchers detected product substitution in 32 per cent of the samples.

More than 20 per cent of the products included fillers such as rice, soybeans and wheat not listed on the label.

“Contamination and substitution in herbal products present considerable health risks for consumers,” said lead author Steven Newmaster, an integrative biology professor and botanical director of the Guelph-based Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO), home of the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding.

“We found contamination in several products with plants that have known toxicity, side effects and/or negatively interact with other herbs, supplements and medications.”

One product labelled as St. John’s wort contained Senna alexandrina, a plant with laxative properties. It’s not intended for prolonged use, as it can cause chronic diarrhea and liver damage and negatively interacts with immune cells in the colon.

Several herbal products contained Parthenium hysterophorus (feverfew), which can cause swelling and numbness in the mouth, oral ulcers, and nausea. It also reacts with medications metabolized by the liver.

One ginkgo product was contaminated with Juglans nigra (black walnut), which could endanger people with nut allergies.

Unlabelled fillers such as wheat, soybeans and rice are also a concern for people with allergies or who are seeking gluten-free products, Newmaster said.

“It’s common practice in natural products to use fillers such as these, which are mixed with the active ingredients. But a consumer has a right to see all of the plant species used in producing a natural product on the list of ingredients.”

Until now, verifying what’s inside capsules or tablets has posed challenges, Newmaster said. His research team developed standard methods and tests using DNA barcoding to identify and authenticate ingredients in herbal products.

“There is a need to protect consumers from the economic and health risks associated with herbal product fraud. Currently there are no standards for authentication of herbal products.”

Medicinal herbs now constitute the fastest-growing segment of the North American alternative medicine market, with more than 29,000 herbal substances sold, he said.

More than 1,000 companies worldwide make medicinal plant products worth more than $60 billion a year.

About 80 per cent of people in developed countries use natural health products, including vitamins, minerals and herbal remedies.

Canada has regulated natural health products since 2004. Regulators face a backlog of licence applications, and thousands of products on the market lack a full product licence. Globally, regulatory problems involving natural health products continue to affect consistency and safety, Newmaster said.

“The industry suffers from unethical activities by some of the manufacturers.”

The study also involved research associate Subramanyam Ragupathy, U of G student Meghan Gruric and Sathishkumar Ramalingam of the Bharathiar University in India.

Oral nutritional supplement use in pediatric inpatients decrease hospital stay and costs

A new study has found that the use of oral nutritional supplements provided to pediatric patients during hospitalization was associated with a decrease in length of stay of 14.8 percent and a decrease in hospital stay costs of $1,768 per patient. The study, conducted by leading researchers at the University of Southern California, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Precision Health Economics, and supported by Abbott, is being presented this weekend at the 2013 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Annual Meeting in Chicago.

The 11-year retrospective study (2000-2010) was analyzed using the Premier Research Database, which contains data on more than half a million hospitalized pediatric cases for patients aged 2 to 8 years. This study is the latest in health economics and outcomes research to illustrate the impact of oral nutrition supplement use in hospitalized patients.

“Malnutrition in children is associated with poor health outcomes and this is especially important in the hospitalized child,” said Maria Mascarenhas, MD, associate professor of pediatrics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. “Nutritional support is a critical component of the clinical management for pediatric inpatients, but it is often overlooked due to other medical issues.”

In the study, investigators were able to determine differences in length of stay and cost of care by comparing hospital stays in which oral nutritional supplements were prescribed to hospital stays of similar conditions where oral nutritional supplements weren’t prescribed.

Oral nutritional supplements are dietary food, often in liquid form, that provide protein, nutrients and calories for added nutrition and energy in one’s diet.

“While other studies have examined the use of nutritional supplements in adults, prior to this study there weren’t any that rigorously quantified the impact of oral nutritional supplements on health economic outcomes in the general pediatric population,” said Darius Lakdawalla, Ph.D., University of Southern California. “These results suggest that nutritional solutions can be a cost-effective approach to improving pediatric patients’ hospital care.”

“Through its leadership in nutrition health economics and outcomes research, Abbott is demonstrating the potential that nutritional intervention can have for the health of children and adult patients, and the cost savings for hospitals,” said Robert H. Miller, Ph.D., divisional vice president, Global Research &Development and Scientific Affairs for Abbott Nutrition. “This is important in the midst of the changing healthcare landscape as hospitals seek effective interventions to help improve patient quality of care and reduce overall costs.”

Compound in Grapes, Red Wine Could Help Treat Multiple Types of Cancer, Study Finds

Resveratrol might provide extra punch to cancer cells during treatment

A recent study by a University of Missouri researcher shows that resveratrol, a compound found in grape skins and red wine, can make certain tumor cells more susceptible to radiation treatment. This research, which studied melanoma cells, follows a previous MU study that found similar results in the treatment of prostate cancer. The next step is for researchers to develop a successful method to deliver the compound to tumor sites and potentially treat many types of cancers.

“Our study investigated how resveratrol and radiotherapy inhibit the survival of melanoma cells,” said Michael Nicholl, MD, assistant professor of surgery at the MU School of Medicine and surgical oncologist at Ellis Fischel Cancer Center in Columbia, Mo. “This work expands upon our previous success with resveratrol and radiation in prostate cancer. Because of difficulties involved in delivery of adequate amounts of resveratrol to melanoma tumors, the compound is probably not an effective treatment for advanced melanoma at this time.”

The study found that melanoma cells become more susceptible to radiation if they were treated first with resveratrol. The MU researcher found that when the cancer was treated with resveratrol alone, 44 percent of the tumor cells were killed. When the cancer cells were treated with a combination of both resveratrol and radiation, 65 percent of the tumor cells died.

Nicholl said his findings could lead to more research into the cancer-fighting benefits of the naturally occurring compound.

“We’ve seen glimmers of possibilities, and it seems that resveratrol could potentially be very important in treating a variety of cancers,” Nicholl said. “It comes down to how to administer the resveratrol. If we can develop a successful way to deliver the compound to tumor sites, resveratrol could potentially be used to treat many types of cancers. Melanoma is very tricky due to the nature of how the cancer cells travel throughout the body, but we envision resveratrol could be combined with radiation to treat symptomatic metastatic tumors, which can develop in the brain or bone.”

Resveratrol supplements are available over the counter in many health food sections at grocery stores. Nicholl does not recommend that patients rely on resveratrol supplements to treat cancer because more research is needed.

Nicholl’s study was published in the Journal of Surgical Research, the journal for the Association for Academic Surgery. If additional studies are successful within the next few years, MU officials will request authority from the federal government to begin human drug development. This is commonly referred to as the “investigative new drug” status. After this status has been granted, researchers may conduct clinical trials with the hope of developing new treatments for cancer.

Compound derived from vegetables shields rodents from lethal radiation doses

WASHINGTON — Georgetown University Medical Center researchers say a compound derived from cruciferous vegetable such as cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli protected rats and mice from lethal doses of radiation.

Their study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggests the compound, already shown to be safe for humans, may protect normal tissues during radiation therapy for cancer treatment and prevent or mitigate sickness caused by radiation exposure.

The compound, known as DIM (3,3′-diindolylmethane), previously has been found to have cancer preventive properties.

“DIM has been studied as a cancer prevention agent for years, but this is the first indication that DIM can also act as a radiation protector,” says the study’s corresponding author, Eliot Rosen, MD, PhD, of Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center.

For the study, the researchers irradiated rats with lethal doses of gamma ray radiation. The animals were then treated with a daily injection of DIM for two weeks, starting 10 minutes after the radiation exposure.

The result was stunning, says Rosen, a professor of oncology, biochemistry and cell & molecular biology, and radiation medicine. “All of the untreated rats died, but well over half of the DIM-treated animals remained alive 30 days after the radiation exposure.”

Rosen adds that DIM also provided protection whether the first injection was administered 24 hours before or up to 24 hours after radiation exposure.

“We also showed that DIM protects the survival of lethally irradiated mice,” Rosen says. In addition, irradiated mice treated with DIM had less reduction in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets — side effects often seen in patients undergoing radiation treatment for cancer.

Rosen says this study points to two potential uses of the compound. “DIM could protect normal tissues in patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer, but could also protect individuals from the lethal consequences of a nuclear disaster.”

Rosen and study co-authors Saijun Fan, PhD, and Milton Brown, MD, PhD, are co-inventors on a patent application that has been filed by Georgetown University related to the usage of DIM and DIM-related compounds as radioprotectors.

Vitamin D does not contribute to kidney stones, study asserts

Increased vitamin D levels may prevent a wide range of diseases, according to recent studies. However, some previous studies led to a concern that vitamin D supplementation could increase an individual’s risk of developing kidney stones.

However, a study of 2,012 participants – published in the American Journal of Public Health –found no statistically relevant association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) serum level in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and the incidence of kidney stones.

This study – led by Cedric F. Garland, DrPH, adjunct professor in the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine – used data from the nonprofit public health promotion organization GrassrootsHealth to follow more than 2,000 men and women of all ages for 19 months.

Only 13 individuals self-reported a kidney stone diagnosis during the study.

“Mounting evidence indicates that a Vitamin D serum level in the therapeutic range of 40 to 50 ng/mL is needed for substantial reduction in risk of many diseases, including breast and colorectal cancer,” said Garland, adding that this serum level is generally only achieved by taking vitamin supplements. “Our results may lessen concerns by individuals about taking vitamin D supplements, as no link was shown between such supplementation and an increased risk for kidney stones.”

The study did show that older age, male gender and higher body mass index (BMI) were all risk factors for developing kidney stones. According to the researchers, individuals with high BMI need higher vitamin D intake than their leaner counterparts to achieve the same 25 (OH)D serum level

High serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content protects against brain abnormalities

According to a new study, high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood may lower the risk of small brain infarcts and other brain abnormalities in the elderly. The study was published in Journal of the American Heart Association.

In the Cardiovascular Health Study in the USA, 3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants.

Research shows that silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people.

The study found that those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood. The study also found that people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains.

Previously in this same study population, similar findings were observed when comparing those with high or low intake of fish. High content of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in blood is a marker for high intake of fatty fish, so the results from the current study support the beneficial effects of fish consumption on brain health.

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These reports are done with the appreciation of all the Doctors, Scientist, and other Medical Researchers who sacrificed their time and effort. In order to give people the ability to empower themselves. Without base aspirations of fame, or fortune. Just honorable people, doing honorable things.

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