Axillary Lymphadenopathy on Ultrasound after COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Influencing Factors: A Single-Center Study

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Purpose: This study aimed to assess the incidence of axillary lymphadenopathy on ultrasound after COVID-19 vaccination and to investigate the factors affecting lymphadenopathy. Methods: We evaluated patients who had received a COVID-19 vaccination within 12 weeks before an ultrasound examination between August and October 2021. The incidence of vaccine-related ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy was evaluated using ultrasound. Age, sex, presence of axillary symptoms, injection site, vaccine type, interval from vaccination, and dose were compared between the groups with and without axillary lymphadenopathy. Results: We included 413 patients, 202 (49%) of whom showed axillary lymphadenopathy on ultrasound after COVID-19 vaccination. Age, interval from vaccine, vaccine brand, vaccine type, dose, and symptom were significantly different between the lymphadenopathy and non-lymphadenopathy groups (p < 0.001), while the injection site and sex were not. Receiving an mRNA vaccine was the most important factor for axillary lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001), followed by intervals of 1–14 (p < 0.001) and 15–28 days (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.006), and first dose (p = 0.045). Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy on ultrasound is common. mRNA type, an interval of 4 weeks, younger age, and first dose were the important factors. Breast clinicians should be well aware of these side effects when performing imaging examinations and provide accurate information to patients. View Full-Text

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